What can I say about Leo Tolstoy‘s Anna Karenina that hasn’t already been said by one reader or another? It’s a long, complex, bittersweet novel about the lives of aristocratic families in Russia in the late 1800’s, summed up nicely in its famous opening lines: “Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” That, in a nutshell, is what Anna Karenina is all about.
Anna Karenina follows the lives of 3 major families – related to each other by marriage or friendship: the Shcherbatskys – Prince and Princess, and their daughters, namely Kitty, and Dolly; the Oblonskys, namely Stepan Arkadyevich, husband of Dolly, and his sister, Anna Arkadyevna Karenina, who is married to Aleksey Karenin; and the family of Konstantin Levin and his brother Nikolai Levin, and half-brother Sergey Ivanovich Koznyshev. Konstantin Levin has been a long-time family friend of the Shcherbatskys, and is in love with the family’s youngest daughter, Kitty. Then of course there are a handful of minor characters, whose names are no easier to read or spell: Agafya Mikhailovna, Vasenka Veslovsky, Countess Lidia Ivanovna, and the infamous Aleksey Kirillovich Vronsky.
Anna Karenina tackles a whole host of problems encountered by different families, that, though set in 19th century Russia, are still very much applicable today; infidelity, financial problems, family values, marriage, love, loss, insecurity, and uncertainty. Mix those in with issues on politics, the government, economics, agriculture, military, society, culture, religion, and philosophy, throw in a horse race or two, a hunt, and a provincial election, and you’ve got yourself a very long, very complicated, very dull Russian masterpiece.
Contrary to its title, Leo Tolstoy’s mammoth novel is not primarily about the character Anna Karenina. She is just one of the characters the book follows, from her respected position in society as the wife of celebrated politician Aleksey Karenin and mother of 8 year old Seryozha, to her eventual ruin, as Aleksey Vronsky’s lover, and mother to his illegitimate child. Viewing the novel as a whole, it’s surprising how little Anna and Vronsky are actually mentioned throughout, and instead it follows more closely the lives of the Oblonskys, and Shcherbatskys, namely Stepan and Dolly’s marriage, and Konstantin Levin, who, to me, is the real main character of this novel. I had read somewhere that Levin was the representation of the author, which explains the characters’ depth and complexity.
With Anna Karenina’s passionate love affair with Vronsky, the abandonment of her marriage and family, her downward spiral in society, and tragic, self-inflicted end, it’s hard not to place her as the center of the story. On the other hand, there’s the character of Konstantin Levin, a hopeless romantic, who represents the more common people who hold traditional, sometimes old-fashioned views on family and marriage, farming, and labor. Levin, who, even toward the end of the book, starts to question religion and his spirituality. Unlike Anna, who is the epitome of tragic love, Levin represents all of us, in his uncertainties with his relationships – with his wife, his household, his laborers; his uncertainties with regards to being a parent, and his uncertainties about the existence of god. While Anna’s character elicits pity, anger, maybe jealousy, and even a little schadenfreude, Levin’s character elicits understanding and introspection.
This is a novel centered not on plot, but on ideas, and concepts voiced through its various characters. Reading about the characters’ innermost thoughts and desires, it’s hard not to form attachments toward, or opinions about them. The characters I liked most in the novel are the Shchertabatskys, followed by Kitty and Levin. I even somewhat liked the carefree and optimistic Stepan Oblonsky, despite his faithlessness and irresponsibility. I pitied the unfortunate Aleksey Karenin, so rigid in his beliefs and relationships, and try as I might, the only emotion I can muster for Anna and Vronsky was annoyance. Surprisingly, the character I empathized with most was Darya Alexandrovna Oblonsky, the troubled, passive wife of the womanizing Stepan Oblonsky, who, trapped in a love-less marriage, bravely holds her family together. Dolly, who, naively and faithfully loved her philandering husband, sacrificing her beauty for the sake of having children, who, though troublesome, still mean the world to her.
Anna Karenina is long, and tedious, but surprisingly readable. The chapters are fairly short, and the narrative style simple and straightforward. Unfortunately, that doesn’t mean it’s an easy novel to read. Reading it, you will realize it is a deeply layered novel, even though you might just have a vague idea of what those layers really are and what issues they allude to.
This is the first novel in my 2017 Back to the Classics Challenge, under the category “Russian Classic.” I originally tried to read Anna Karenina late 2016, but failed after the first couple of pages. I chose it for the “Russian Classic” category because despite my initial failure, I still wanted to finish it. This was a hard book for me to read, and I did not enjoy it much. I started in January 21, with the plan of reading 50 pages a day (except weekends), for 18 days. Unfortunately, because of its difficulty, and other external distractions, I ended up finishing the book only last Sunday, March 12. It takes dedication, and perseverance to get through this novel, and finishing it (even though my understanding of it barely scratched the surface), feels like a big accomplishment for me. Now I feel I can tackle any difficult book I set my mind to, Russian Classic or not. Ulysses, anyone?
Anna Karenina (1877) – Leo Tolstoy (translated by Constance Garnett)
The Modern Library; 923 pages / E-book from Project Gutenberg
Personal rating: 2.5/5